Use tcpdump if you want a pcap to open up in wireshark later. Else, use tshark if you want a "text only" view of the SIP traffic without all the headers and extra information.
Real-time traffic dump (full packets):
tcpdump -nq -s 0 -A -vvv -i eth0 port 5060
Dump to file:
tcpdump -nq -s 0 -i eth0 -w /tmp/dump.pcap port 5060
Save a new time-stamped file approximately once per hour on the specified port
tcpdump -nq -s 0 -i eth0 -G3600 -w /tmp/trace/sip-%F--%H-%M-%S.pcap port 5060
Daemonize and log 2 ports, rotate every hour.
nohup tcpdump -nq -s 0 -i eth0 -G3600 -w /tmp/trace/sip-%F--%H-%M-%S.pcap port 5080 or port 5060 &
Daemonize and log 2 ports, rotate every hour, and place into hierarchical directory structure.
#!/bin/bash TD=`pidof tcpdump` if [ -n "$TD" ]; then kill "$TD" fi DIRS="/var/spool/pcap/`/bin/date '+%Y'`/ /var/spool/pcap/`/bin/date '+%Y'`/`/bin/date '+%m'`/ /var/spool/pcap/`/bin/date '+%Y'`/`/bin/date '+%m'`/`/bin/date '+%d'`/" for DIR in $DIRS do if [ ! -d "$DIR" ]; then mkdir "$DIR" fi done nohup tcpdump -nq -s 0 -i eth0 -G3600 -w '/var/spool/pcap/%Y/%m/%d/%H%M%S.pcap' port 5060 or port 5080 &> /opt/freeswitch/log/tcpdump.log &
This should be run from cron / init services first min of new day.
Capturing A Specific User's Calls
sofia status profile $profile user $user_id
to get the remote ip/and port, then use:
tcpdump -i $INTERFACE -s 1500 -A host $IPADDRESS and port $SIPPORT
Using Wireshark to Analyze pcap files
Wireshark has some nice tools for analyzing your packet captures. Jason Garland (IRC: Cherebrum) did two presentations on using Wireshark (and some other tools) for checking your network and your VoIP:
NOTE: The douchebags at viddler went non-free, even for OSS projects. I'm currently working on an alternative with youtube.com. Stay tuned.
The second presentation is here: http://www.viddler.com/explore/cluecon/videos/33/
The first presentation got cut short, but it's still good: http://www.viddler.com/explore/cluecon/videos/8/
There was a good howto on the web that disappeared.
- Here's a scrape in case archive.org goes down.
USAGE:usage: ngrep <-hNXViwqpevxlDtTRM> <-IO pcap_dump> <-n num> <-d dev> <-A num> <-s snaplen> <-S limitlen> <-W normal|byline|single|none> <-c cols> <-P char> <-F file> <match expression> <bpf filter> -h is help/usage -V is version information -q is be quiet (don't print packet reception hash marks) -e is show empty packets -i is ignore case -v is invert match -R is don't do privilege revocation logic -x is print in alternate hexdump format -X is interpret match expression as hexadecimal -w is word-regex (expression must match as a word) -p is don't go into promiscuous mode -l is make stdout line buffered -D is replay pcap_dumps with their recorded time intervals -t is print timestamp every time a packet is matched -T is print delta timestamp every time a packet is matched -M is don't do multi-line match (do single-line match instead) -I is read packet stream from pcap format file pcap_dump -O is dump matched packets in pcap format to pcap_dump -n is look at only num packets -A is dump num packets after a match -s is set the bpf caplen -S is set the limitlen on matched packets -W is set the dump format (normal, byline, single, none) -c is force the column width to the specified size -P is set the non-printable display char to what is specified -F is read the bpf filter from the specified file -N is show sub protocol number -d is use specified device instead of the pcap default EXAMPLES: ngrep -qt -W byline port 5060 ngrep -d any port 5060 -W byline > outfile.txt ngrep -q '8005551212' -W byline port 5060 #<swk>: only shows packets on 5060 with 8005551212 inside the payload
DESC: Perl with number matching in -t or -f 5554443333 style. colored output.
Usage: sipgrep <-h> <-f number> <-t number> <-a> <-l file> <-V> <-p> <-T> <-n|-c> -h Displays this help message. -f ARG Search ARG in From field. -t ARG Search ARG in To field. -a Search the ARG from '-f' and '-t' parameters in To and From fields. -l ARG Debug file name. -V Displays the current version. -p Port for ngrep. -T Parameter for ngrep. Indicating the delta between packet matches. -c Allow colors in debug file. -n Not allow colors in STDOUT. Example: sipgrep -f 0123456 -t 0654321 -l debug.sip or sipgrep -f 0123456 -a -l debug.sip
DESC: pcapsipdump is a tool for dumping SIP sessions (+RTP traffic, if available) to disk in a fashion similar to "tcpdump -w" (format is exactly the same), but one file per sip session (even if there is thousands of concurrect SIP sessions).
example: pcapsipdump -i eth0 -d /tmp/ « keep all SIP sessions on tmp folder pcapsipdump version 0.1.4-trunk Usage: pcapsipdump [-fpU] [-i <interface>] [-r <file>] [-d <working directory>] [-v level] -f Do not fork or detach from controlling terminal. -p Do not put the interface into promiscuous mode. -U Make .pcap files writing 'packet-buffered' - slower method, but you can use partitially written file anytime, it will be consistent. -v Set verbosity level (higher is more verbose). -n Number-filter. Only calls to/from specified number will be recorded -t T.38-filter. Only calls, containing T.38 payload indicated in SDP will be recorded
tshark aka tethereal
DESC: Dump and analyze network traffic.
TShark 0.99.4 Dump and analyze network traffic. See http://www.wireshark.org for more information. Copyright 1998-2006 Gerald Combs <firstname.lastname@example.org> and contributors. This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Usage: tshark [options] ... Capture interface: -i <interface> name or idx of interface (def: first non-loopback) -f <capture filter> packet filter in libpcap filter syntax -s <snaplen> packet snapshot length (def: 65535) -p don't capture in promiscuous mode -y <link type> link layer type (def: first appropriate) -D print list of interfaces and exit -L print list of link-layer types of iface and exit Capture stop conditions: -c <packet count> stop after n packets (def: infinite) -a <autostop cond.> ... duration:NUM - stop after NUM seconds filesize:NUM - stop this file after NUM KB files:NUM - stop after NUM files Capture output: -b <ringbuffer opt.> ... duration:NUM - switch to next file after NUM secs filesize:NUM - switch to next file after NUM KB files:NUM - ringbuffer: replace after NUM files Input file: -r <infile> set the filename to read from (no pipes or stdin!) Processing: -R <read filter> packet filter in Wireshark display filter syntax -n disable all name resolutions (def: all enabled) -N <name resolve flags> enable specific name resolution(s): "mntC" -d <layer_type>==<selector>,<decode_as_protocol> ... "Decode As", see the man page for details Example: tcp.port==8888,http Output: -w <outfile|-> set the output filename (or '-' for stdout) -F <output file type> set the output file type, default is libpcap an empty "-F" option will list the file types -V add output of packet tree (Packet Details) -x add output of hex and ASCII dump (Packet Bytes) -T pdml|ps|psml|text output format of text output (def: text) -t ad|a|r|d output format of time stamps (def: r: rel. to first) -l flush output after each packet -q be more quiet on stdout (e.g. when using statistics) -X <key>:<value> eXtension options, see the man page for details -z <statistics> various statistics, see the man page for details Miscellaneous: -h display this help and exit -v display version info and exit -o <name>:<value> ... override preference setting
Filter with tshark then seperate them per call into different pcap files with pcapsipdump: EXAMPLE: 'sip.uri contains "soemname" or rtp or rtcp' -w -|pcapsipdump -
Capture SIP, RTP, ICMP, DNS, RTCP, and T38 traffic in a ring buffer capturing 100 50MB files continuously: EXAMPLE: tshark -i eth0 -o "rtp.heuristic_rtp: TRUE" -w /tmp/capture.pcap -b filesize:51200 -b files:100 -R 'sip or rtp or icmp or dns or rtcp or t38'
Filter on RTCP packets reporting any packet loss or jitter over 30ms EXAMPLE: tshark -i eth0 -o "rtp.heuristic_rtp: TRUE" -R 'rtcp.ssrc.fraction >= 1 or rtcp.ssrc.jitter >= 240' -V
Filter on SIP and all RTP packets EXAMPLE: tshark -S -w capture.pcap -f "(udp port sip) or (udp & 1 != 1 && udp & 1 != 1 && udp & 0x80 == 0x80 && length < 250)"
Capture all SIP on specified port and switch files every hour tshark -nq -i eth0 -b duration:3600 -w /tmp/trace/sip.pcap port 5080
HOMER Sip Capture
DESC: SIP capturing server with HEP and IP-proto-4 (IPIP) & Monitoring Application with CallFlows, PCAP extraction, powerful search tools, statistics and API. Native HEP capture agent integrated in FreeSWITCH
Truncate / Cut a captured pcap file
With The Wireshark gui
Open the pcap then click "save as". Look at the options - from frame $x to $y, the marked ones, from the first marked one to the last marked one, etc. To mark packets, you can right click them in the viewer.
CLI: via editcap
If you have a large PCAP from any of the above methods and want to share part of it, you can use the "editcap" command line program that comes with wireshark. Read the full manual.
In short, if you want just packets $x to $y, use:
editcap -r $source_infile $outfile $x-$y (-r means "only include x-y" otherwise, this command would cut out x-y).
If you want to drop some packets, then skip the -r and list the ones to drop, e.g. to drop packet 1000 to 3000:
editcap $source_infile $outfile 1000-3000
Analyze a packet capture with SIP TLS on port 5061
Replace 126.96.36.199 with your own IP address.
EXAMPLE: wireshark -o "ssl.desegment_ssl_records: TRUE" \ -o "ssl.desegment_ssl_application_data: TRUE" \ -o "ssl.keys_list: 188.8.131.52,5061,sip,/usr/local/freeswitch/conf/ssl/agent.pem" \ -o "ssl.debug_file: /tmp/wireshark.log" \ -i eth0 -f "tcp port 5061"
EXAMPLE: tshark -o "ssl.desegment_ssl_records: TRUE" \ -o "ssl.desegment_ssl_application_data: TRUE" \ -o "ssl.keys_list: 184.108.40.206,5061,sip,/opt/freeswitch/conf/ssl/agent.pem" \ -o "ssl.debug_file:/tmp/tshark.log" \ -i eth0 \ -f "tcp port 5061"
Analyze RTP events
tshark -o "rtp.heuristic_rtp: TRUE" -R rtpevent or with tethereal: tethereal -o "rtp.heuristic_rtp: TRUE" -R rtpevent
Analyze RTP Quality
sudo tshark -q -f 'udp portrange 16384-32768' -o rtp.heuristic_rtp:TRUE -z rtp,streams
If you're doing long-term captures, you may want to get a bit more paranoid about security:
sudo setuid 4755 /usr/bin/dumpcap dumpcap -f 'udp portrange 16384-32768' -i eth0 -w /tmp/qos.pcap tshark -qr /tmp/qos.pcap -o rtp.heuristic_rtp:TRUE -z rtp,streams